Take a portion of the material, slice it up into parts, and then slice those pieces into even smaller bits. Okay, let’s get started. If we go on with this process, at some time we will be forced to come to a halt at the location known as the “atom.” There, in front of you, are the neatly ordered rows that result from the presence of numerous atoms. Not just this item, but also the outcomes are the same as they are for any other object. When a piece of mercury is reduced to its most fundamental level, it is referred to as “Mercury,” which refers to the atomic level of the substance. “indivisible” is what we mean when we talk about atoms. It is impossible to break it apart into any other parts if one takes the literal sense of the phrase seriously.
In spite of the fact that the meaning of atoms does not change, the idea that it is theoretically feasible to break atoms down into their component pieces is an intriguing one. However, once this occurs, it will no longer possess any atoms. For instance, the mercury atom that makes up a minimal unit may be broken down into smaller components, but once that happens, the substance no longer qualifies as mercury. When it is shared, it will immediately lose its identity. Following that, the computation of the fundamental particles will be completed.
In 1911, Ernest Rutherford, who first tried to scientifically examine the atom, We can not see the atom and can not divide the properties into more than one form. Can not see, do not share, that does not mean that the interior of the atom cannot be ‘understood’ to see how it is. When scientists can not see or understand anything at all, they provide possible explanations and predictions by providing a ‘scientific model’. By using appropriate testing, the model is proved to be true or rejected.
Before Rutherford, physicist J. J. Thomson provided a model for the atomic structure. That was the end of the nineteenth century. There was some error in Thomson’s model. Later, Thomson’s student Ernest Rutherford provided a somewhat improved and less error-prone model from his model. Rutherford was a professor of Thomson and a professor of physics at Cambridge University and a Nobel Prize in Physics is proof of his ability. However, there are some limitations/errors in Rutherford’s model. Correcting these errors provides better models than its own, Niles Bourse’s student.
The Rutherford model and the Bore model both propose that the atoms are analogous to solar systems. Within each atom lies a dense core known as the nucleus. This core is where the atomic weight is concentrated. The nucleus comprises protons and neutrons. In the same way as the planets in our solar system revolve around the sun, the electrons rotate around the nucleus. Both the Rutherford and the Boor nuclear models postulate that the majority of the space contained inside an atom is vacant. In an atom arranged in a row, the nucleus is separated from the next nucleus by a significant amount of empty space.
How small a thing can be
It’s good to say, big or small, these things are relative. Depending on the need, it can be very big, and the distance or size may seem too big or important in terms of need. For example, hundreds of thousands of kilometers of cosmic planets can be ‘small’ beyond the calculation of countless planets, and even one percent of one centimeter (nanometer) on the nuclear scale can be ‘big’ or significant.
As much as the nucleus of the atomic atom is regarded to be the size of a common football, the distance from one nucleus to another is 15 kilometers if the atom’s cortex will be the size of a common football! It is figured out in terms of diamond atomic carbon. It’s possible that the gap between heavy atoms and massive atoms is greater. The electrons travel around 15,000 kilometers in a circle around the nucleus of the football. When compared to a football, electrons will seem to be about the same size as sand. Electrons also keep a distance from one another that is measured in kilometers, and this gap may be several thousand kilometers.
Each nucleus is made up of two very small particles called protons and neutrons. If someone wants to get the benefit of thinking, then they can take their form as goals, but in reality, they also have no specific shape. Proton and neutrons are almost the same in size. Of course, they are very small, but they still have a thousand times bigger electrons.
On the part of the mass, the electron is so insignificant that when calculating the mass of the atom, the mass of the proton and neutrons is calculated, the electrons do not have to be counted. What does ‘mass’ mean? Depending on the mass of an object, depending on all the protons and neutrons present in the object. That is, the amount of mass of a packet of salt depends on the number of protons and neutrons on all the atoms of the salt packet. All nuclei of the same type of substance contain the same proportion. For example, salt is a structural element in sodium. All the sodium in the salt has all the same protons in the nucleus. Equal particles of protons are rotating inside the atomic nucleus.
The number of protons in an atom is that which is the atomic number of that element. The element can also be detected by the atomic number of an element. For example, atomic number 6 is carbon, atom 82 is lead (lead). For such numerical properties, the atoms are grouped in a periodic table.
Number of a Neutron in the atom
As was discussed before, as a thing is broken down into smaller and smaller pieces, eventually it will reach what is known as the atom, which is the smallest possible portion. When an atom is shattered, it no longer contains the atoms that make up that specific material. Instead, it transforms into any other kind of atom or any other type of fundamental particle. As an example, there are 82 protons in a single lead atom. In the event that it is shattered or reduced in size, the proton need to be split. When protons are cut into two pieces or transported from one location to another, the atom of one element changes into the atom of another element. This happens whenever protons are split into two parts. If there is to be lead in an atom, then there must be 82 protons in it.
What will happen if the electron is removed? If electrons are electrically fired, they do not even distinguish between the atoms of atoms, even if they affect the atom. Because the mass of the electron is just a small amount.
Neutron behaves a bit differently. What is the number of a neutron in the atom, is not so specific as a proton. There may be different neutrons on the same atom in the field. For example, in carbon atoms, there are always 6 protons in it. But carbon neutron can be of 3 types – 6, 7, and 8. The atoms containing different numbers of neutrons of the same substance are called ‘isotope’. As such, carbon isotopes have 3. Carbon 12, Carbon-13, and Carbon-14 Here the number of masses of carbon is indicated by the numbers 12, 13, and 14. The sum of protons and neutrons in an element is called the mass number. 6 + 6 = 12, 6 + 7 = 13 and 6 + 8 = 14; These three different numbers of neutron are just about 3 isotopes of carbon.
Some isotopes show radioactivity. This means that they are gradually transformed into another atom by completing radioactive radiation. Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope. By using this radioactivity of the isotope, scientists can determine the age of the fossils. Carbon-14 isotopes are used to determine the fossil age. For example, carbon-14 is used to determine the age and duration of an ancient sinking vessel.
So, does our nuclear quest end up reaching electrons, protons, and neutrons? So what is the smallest part of the object? No! Even basic particles of protons and neutrons can be solved. Quark can be found if the neutrons are solved. There are six types of quarks in nature – up quark, down quark, top quark, bottom quark, charm quark, and strangle quark. The two up quarks (u) and a down quark (d) form a proton together, whereas an up and two down quarks form a neutron.
What is the end of the quark? Physicists think, no. According to a hypothesis, the quarks consist of a small fiber or strings. This concept is known as ‘String Theory‘. So far, scientists have found that this is the smallest part of the object.