People are constantly researching the creation of the universe, our existence, time, reality, etc. Science has come a long way in its journey. Scientists are telling various stories about the nature and activities of the universe. This story solidifies its position as a theory when proven by mathematics. Many theories do not resonate with everyone in their early days. Such was Einstein’s theory of relativity. In addition to this theory, Einstein spent the rest of his life thinking about another theory. That is integrated field theory. Let’s talk about string theory.
In-depth of a Matter
Suppose you have a flower on your hand. What do you think of how flowers are made? Let’s say you started zooming it in a little, then zoomed in more. At the first stage of zooming, you will notice the molecule. Then you can see the atom if you magnify it further. This is not the end. While getting deeper, electrons can be found inside. Not even that, if you magnify more you might notice many smaller things in one place as Nucleus. Again which is made up of two more objects, protons and neutrons. Is this the end? No. If we zoom further on the neutron again, we will find the smallest substance called quark. This is where we should stop as of now.
According to String Theory, if we extend this quark, we get a force, which is like a thread. The string vibrates like a guitar and forms a quark and quark forms a neutron. So if we merge them all again, we will get that flower. So for we’ve discovered nothing but some strings form visible matters by vibrating with its loop(a mechanism) at each step. The vibrations would sing out quarks, electrons, gluons, and photons, as well as their extended families, producing in harmony every ingredient needed to cook up the knowable world This is the basic idea of string theory. String theory turns the page on the standard explanation of the universe by reinstating all matter and force particles with just one element: Tiny vibrating strings that wrap and turn in complicated ways that, from our perspective, look like particles. A string of a particular length striking a particular note gains the properties of a photon, and another string twisted and vibrating with a random frequency plays the role of a quark, and so on
Here it is considered as one-dimensional. The purpose of this theory is to explain the behavior and mechanism of all the fundamental particles, objects, and gravity in the universe using the quantum states, mechanisms, and properties of these strings. String theory can explain gravity with the help of all the elementary particles and can explain the state of matter with four elemental forces and all kinds of energies. That’s why string theory has earned its place as the theory of everything.
Fundamental particles can be divided into two segments or classes according to their properties. One class is called boson and the other is called fermion. Early string theory was known as Bosonic string theory. In the early stage, this theory only focused on bosons’ particles. Later, Scientists discovered a kind of theoretical connection between different types of fundamental particles. This theoretical connection between these two different types of particles is called Supersymmetry. The concept of Supersymmetry was then used by string theorists to construct their theories. Eventually, this newly introduced string theory is now called – Superstring Theory. Scientists no longer have to deal with bosons. String theory is now functional with the researching behavior of two classes of particles, bosons, and fermions. While working on superstring theory, scientists required some additional dimensions. This situation leads us to the Kaluza–Klein theory (KK theory). So, this put a question mark of where are the other dimensions?
Exploring other dimensions
To explain all the forces and matters around the universe, it’s not possible to bring them all under the umbrella of string theory since it requires a minimum of 10 dimensions. This is the limitation of string theory as we could not explore or discover all of them yet. There is a hypothesis about the existence of those dimensions. If we observe a wire from a particular distance, it seems one-dimensional. But if we look closely, we can see that it has another dimension. An ant fits in this dimension, as he can walk on a wire or cable. And probably those unexplored and undiscovered dimensions are so tiny that we couldn’t get into them yet. The interesting fact is a tiny thing like a particle or an electron can enter those dimensions
Scientists have built a mega-machine known as The Large Hadron Collider, located in Geneva, Switzerland, to solve these dimensional and various complicated problems of matters. With LHC we can collide particles with each other. The amazing news is God particle was created with this. Scientists believe that if the mass of a collided particle is lesser than the mass before the collision, then the rest of the mass could move to other dimensions and the chances are very high. However, scientists are still researching these probabilities.
According to Wikipedia M-theory is a theory in physics that unifies all consistent versions of superstring theory. Earlier, quantum chromodynamics was used to explain all the properties of strong nuclear forces. But scientists were not happy since they were facing some issues. That’s why in the late sixties they started working on a completely new theory to explain some of the features of strong nuclear forces. Scientists could realize this theory is more capable of forming Quantum gravity than nuclear physics.
Since in the meantime several versions of string theory have been introduced, scientists felt that string theory was moving towards a bunch of theories rather than a single theory. Eventually, with 11 dimensions M-theory was introduced.
According to Stephen Hawking, “M-theory is the only theory that could claim to be the theory of everything.” Famous physicists like Richard Feynman, Roger Penrose, and Sheldon Lee Glashow have already criticized this claim. They believe this theory requires a lot of energy and forces to experiment and therefore it is not possible to prove the truth of the hypotheses of this theory by testing. So this theory failed to prove itself as a theory of everything.
There are many unsolved theories at present. To explain the existence of dark matter, a mathematical equation needs to be created which supports reality. Today’s technology may not be able to prove it, but scientists believe that soon it will be possible to prove it and we will be able to explain the universe.